# ES6 Notes

ES6(a.k.a ES2015) has been around for some time. Although it is fully backward compatible with previous version of JavaScript - ES5 which has been around for decades, there's quite some new syntax and features introduced in ES6 that is exciting on one hand, but can easily get wrong on the other hand. This posts is my study notes on ES6.

## let for block scoping

let defines block scope variables, which can be accessed in a nested scope just like var. The following code outputs 12 :

'use strict';
function updateProductId() {
productId =12;
}
let productId =null;

updateProductId();
console.log(productId);


### Unlike var, let is block scoped.

In the following example, every time the for loop runs, a new i is declared. Thurs each function gets its own copy of i. The code outputs 0 :

'use strict';
let updateFunctions =[];
for (let i =0; i <2; i++){
updateFunctions.push(function() {return i; });
}
console.log(updateFunctions[0]());


Whereas in the following example, var i is function scoped and hoisted. Each function gets the same i. So the code outputs 2

'use strict';
let updateFunctions =[];
for (var i =0; i <2; i++){
updateFunctions.push(function() {return i; });
}
console.log(updateFunctions[0]());


## An arrow function is not a function

It is not like a function in a few ways. The key difference to note is that this in an arrow function is captured at function creation, not function invocation(runtime), and this can't be changed at runtime.

### Unlike traditional function, an arrow function is not 'bindable'.

The following code outputs 123 rather than 456 :

var o1 = {
number: 123,
getArrowFunc: function() {
return () => console.log(this.number);
}
};

var o2 = {
number: 456
};
o1.getArrowFunc().bind(o2)();


### Unlike function, an arrow function is not 'callable'.

Same as above, the following code outputs 123 rather than 456 :

var o1 = {
number: 123,
getArrowFunc: function() {
return () => console.log(this.number);
}
};

var o2 = {
number: 456
};
o1.getArrowFunc().call(o2);


### Unlike function, an arrow function doesn't has a prototype.

The code below outputs false :

'use strict';
var getPrice =() =>5.99;
console.log(getPrice.hasOwnProperty("prototype"));


## Default Parameters

In the following example, price and baseTax can be accessed when defining another default parameter price :

'use strict';
var baseTax=0.07;
var getTotal=function(price, tax=price *baseTax) {
console.log(price +tax);
};


### Default parameter doesn't count as the actual parameter passed in.

The following code outputs 1 instead of 2 :

'use strict';
var getTotal = function(price, tax=0.07){
console.log(arguments.length);
};
getTotal(5.00);


### Default parameters have orders and are not hoisted.

The following example causes a SyntaxError because adjustment is used before it is defined:

'use strict';
};
getTotal();


However the following similar example is valid and outputs 6. This is because JavaScript is a dynamic language that doesn't do compile time check, and at run time, the lookup for adjustment is skipped when the actual parameter 5 is passed in and assigned to price.

'use strict';
};
getTotal(5);


## The Rest Parameter

The concept is similar to Java's [Arbitrary Number of Arguments](http://docs.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/java/javaOO/arguments.html#varargs).

### The 'Rest' parameter is always an array.

The following code outputs [] :

'use strict';
var showCategories = function(productId, ...categories) {
console.log(categories);
};
showCategories(123);


### Unlike default parameters, the 'Rest' parameter doesn't count as a parameter defined on the function signature.

The following code outputs 1 :

'use strict';
var showCategories = function(productId, ...categories) {};
console.log(showCategories.length)


### Just like default parameters, the 'Rest' parameter doesn't count as a actual parameter passed in.

The following code outputs the number of actual parameters passed in, which is 3

'use strict';
var showCategories = function(productId, ...categories) {
console.log(arguments.length);
};
showCategories(123, 'c1', 'c2')


... is introduced in ES6 as the Spread operator.

### ... works not only with array, but with strings too.

The ... breaks the string into a series individual characters, so the output is the maximum character 4 :

'use strict';
var maxCode = Math.max(..."43210");
console.log(maxCode);


## Object Literal Extensions

An object literal is a list of zero or more pairs of property names and associated values of an object, enclosed in curly braces {}. In ES6, object literals are extended with new features.

### Like arrow functions, this in a shorthand function refer to the context the function being called.

For example, the following code outputs 5.99 rather than 7.99 :

'use strict';
var price = 5.99;
var productView = {
price: 7.99,
calculateValue() {
return this.price;
}
};
console.log(productView.calculateValue());


So we need to keep in mind that the shorthand functions are not exactly the same thing as the traditional functions. The same goes for arrow functions.

## Template Literals

### Expressions are allowed in ${}  'use strict'; let person = 'personA'; let personAName = 'Ryan'; console.log(~Person name:${person + 'Name'}~); // Output: Person name: personAName


## ES6 Modules

### Original reference to what is imported become unavailable once alias is used.

import {name as name1} from 'module1.js';

console.log(~${name},${name1} are loaded.~); // name is no longer available. It may or may not cause error depending on the transpiler used and runtime environments.


### import statements get hoisted and executed first before any other code.

Suppose the following program starts from index.js which loads module1.js :

// index.js
console.log(~start using name: ${name}~); import {name} from 'module1.js'; console.log('end'); // module1.js export let name = "ES6 Template"; console.log('module1 is loaded.'); // output: module1 is loaded. start using name: ES6 Template end  ### Named imports are read-only. We can't reassign a new value to named imports, but we can change properties. // module1.js exports let name = 'original name'; exports let obj = { name: name}; // index.js - causing error: name is read-only... import {name} from 'module1.js'; console.log(~old name :${name}~);
name = 'new name';
console.log(~new name : ${name}~); // updated index.js - works. outputs new name. import {obj} from 'module1.js'; console.log(~old name :${obj.name}~);
obj.name = 'new name';
console.log(~new name : ${obj.name}~);  ### ES6 modules export/import bindings/references rather than values. In the example below, both primitive types: age and name get updated. So they are not being imported as local variables: // module1.js export let age = 10; export let name = 'Good Name'; export function makeChange() { age += 1; // change int primitive type name += ' Updated'; // change string primitive type } // index.js import {age, name, makeChange} from './module1.js' console.log(~originals:${age}, ${name}~); makeChange(); console.log(~updated:${age}, \${name}~);

// output:
originals: 10, Good Name
updated: 11, Good Name Updated


## Class

### Unlike object literals, a class definition is 'sort of' like a function definition.

Because of that, ',' causes SyntaxError when running the following code:

class Task {
constructor() {
},
showId() {
console.log('99');
}
}


But unlike a function, variables are not allowed to be declared inside a class. The following code also causes SyntaxError :

class Task {
var a = 1;
constructor() {
}
showId() {
console.log('99');
}
}


### Just like functions, class definitions can be used in expressions.

Please notice though, once class definition is assigned to a variable, the original reference is not available outside of the class definition.

let newClass1 = class Task1 {
constructor() {
}
};
new newClass1(); // works fine

};
new newClass2(); // works fine


### Unlike functions, class definitions are not 'callable':


constructor() {
}
};


### Unlike functions, class definitions are NOT polluting the global variable.


function Project1() { };
class Project2 {};

console.log(window.Project1 === Project1); // true
console.log(window.Project2 === Project2); // false


## extends and super

The most basic form:


class Project {
constructor(name) {
console.log('constructing Project: ' + name);
}
}
class SoftwareProject extends Project {
constructor(name) {
console.log('constructing SoftwareProject: ' + name);
super(name);
}
}
new SoftwareProject('Mazatlan');


### Default constructors for classes

When constructor is missing from base class, a default 'non-parameterized' one is created:


class Project {
}
class SoftwareProject extends Project {
constructor(name) {
console.log('constructing SoftwareProject: ' + name);
super(name);
}
}
new SoftwareProject('Mazatlan');


When constructor is missing from subclass, a default 'parameterized' one is created to make sure parameters can be passed onto super constructor.

// default constructor for subclass
constructor(...args) {
super(...args);
}


class Project {
constructor(name) {
console.log('constructing Project: ' + name);
}
}
class SoftwareProject extends Project {
}
new SoftwareProject('Mazatlan');


While it is ok not to have an explicit call to super constructor super() in base class, it is not ok to omit super() call in a subclass. So long as there's a constructor in the subclass, a default constructor with super() call won't be created.


class Project {
constructor() {
// no super(), ok.
}
}
class SoftwareProject extends Project {
constructor() {
// no super(), NOT ok. ReferenceError.
}
}
new SoftwareProject('Mazatlan');


### this ordering

In a subclass, you must call super() before you can use this:


class Project {
constructor() {
}
}
class SoftwareProject extends Project {
constructor(name) {
this.name = name; // causes error
super();
this.name = name; // works.
}
}
new SoftwareProject('Mazatlan');


### static function are to be called by class, not the instances.


class Project {
static getName() {
return 'Project Name';
}
}
let p = new Project();
//Project.getName(); // TypeError
p.getName(); // works fine


### new.target is always pointing the initial class


class Project {
constructor() {
console.log(new.target);
}
}
class SoftwareProject extends Project {
constructor(name) {
super();
this.name = name;
}
}
new SoftwareProject();

/* output:
function class SoftwareProject extends Project {
constructor(name) {
super();
this.name = name;
}
}
*/


new.target can be used to access static functions defined in the original class:


class Project {
constructor() {
console.log(new.target.getCompany());
}
}
class SoftwareProject extends Project {
static getCompany() {
return 'A good company';
}
}
new SoftwareProject();


## Symbols

Symbol() are creating new unique ones, even with same parameters.

let s1 = Symbol('name1');
let s2 = Symbol('name1');
console.log(s1 === s2); //false


Symbol.for() on the other hand, only creates a new one when no existing one can be found in the symbol registry.


let s1 = Symbol.for('name1');
let s2 = Symbol.for('name1');

console.log(s1 === s2); //true


Object properties created by Symbol are special ones that needs to be accessed in a special way:

let article = {
title: 'A title',
[Symbol.for('article')]: 'An article'
};
console.log( Object.getOwnPropertyNames(article) ); // ['title']
console.log( Object.getOwnPropertySymbols(article) ); // [Symbol(article)]